Cuttings - this is one of the methods of vegetative reproduction, which allows without special material and physical costs and in a relatively short time to grow almost any plant from its vegetative part (shoot).
As for woody plants, they are propagated mainly by stem and only partially (in scanty volumes) by root cuttings.
It should be noted that stem cuttings of the overwhelming majority of woody plants are difficult to root under normal conditions. Therefore, in large nurseries, and in private farmsteads specializing in the production of planting material, one cannot do without fogging installation.
This irrigation system, in combination with a greenhouse covered with a film, allows you to maintain the optimal conditions necessary for rooting cuttings, namely, a high, stable air humidity in combination with a moderate soil moisture. In addition to this installation, nowadays, more and more often, to obtain high-quality planting material, they resort to the use of growth stimulants, in the solution of which the cuttings are soaked before planting in the greenhouse.
Reproduction method by green cuttings is now gaining more and more popularity and is already becoming one of the main in ornamental gardening. For cutting cuttings, special mother plants are created, consisting of mother plants, which are used only for cutting cuttings from them. The most productive age of mother plants is considered to be the interval from 5 to 10 years of life, as for difficult-to-root plants, cuttings are taken from them when they reach 2-3 years of age.
Since all plants are biologically different organisms, the most optimal period for cutting green cuttings is also different for them. And its identification is an important condition for obtaining good planting material.
In central Russia, the most optimal period for cutting green deciduous cuttings is at the end of May - beginning of June.
Subject to the timing of cuttings, the formation of roots is much better, moreover, it saves the shoots themselves. If you delay the timing and start green cuttings later, then a significant part of the shoots (almost a third), due to their lignification, is no longer used.
Cuttings of chokeberry, mountain ash and viburnum (from bottom to top)
The best terms for green cuttings of varietal lilacs and chubushniks are at the time of their flowering, however, it should be remembered that it is impossible to cut cuttings from shoots with flowers or flower buds.
However, the period of propagation by cuttings is not always associated with the period of flowering; in many other species and forms of deciduous species, the most favorable time is the period of intensive growth of shoots. A little later - at the very end of May, you can cut cuttings from barberry, euonymus, buddlea, weigela, wolf, hydrangea, honeysuckle, cinquefoil, viburnum, dogwood, broom, rhododendron and gum. You will not be late with cutting these crops even if you start harvesting cuttings in the first decade of June.
As for conifers, there are two periods: the first usually falls on the very end of April or the beginning of May, even before the buds begin to swell. For example, at this time, shoots of thuja western, spruce, fir and juniper are harvested. The second period of coniferous cuttings is in the summer, when the shoots have finished their active growth, usually from mid-June to mid-July. Among the plants there are those that give an extremely low percentage of rooting, even if the entire technology of cuttings is followed. These plants include most conifers and maples, as well as oak, linden, birch; among shrub plants, the roots of Irga and blueberries are poorly formed.
So, having decided on the timing of cuttings, let's proceed to the operation itself.
Let's start by cutting the cuttings: the shoots are ready to be cut into cuttings when they are still flexible enough, and the bark is green, when bent they should not emit a crunch. In most species of woody plants, cuttings are cut only from the middle part of the shoot, and too soft the upper part is also discarded, as well as the too lignified lower one. If the cutting is cut from the upper part of the shoot of deciduous and coniferous species (apical cutting), then the bud located at the top is left on the cutting.
As for the time for cutting the cuttings, early morning or cloudy day is considered optimal. This minimizes evaporation from the cuttings. In addition to cutting time, evaporation can also be reduced by shortening the leaf blade by about half. Then the cuttings are placed with their lower ends in a vessel with water or in a phytohormone solution.
Cutting length and thickness are also very important for successful root formation. Very thin cuttings are undesirable, since they rooted poorly, but the length of the cutting directly depends on the size of the internodes. If the internodes on the shoot are short, then cuttings are cut with 3-4 internodes, and from shoots with long nodes, cuttings with two internodes are usually obtained. On average, the length of green cuttings ranges from 3 to 12 centimeters. It should be remembered that cuttings that are too long take root less well. Also, you should not take fatty shoots for cuttings. For example, in viburnum, they are very easy to distinguish from normal shoots, they are usually much thicker than normal annual growths, and have larger leaves.
Bird cherry cuttings
Cutting technology from the shoots is simple: holding the prepared shoot in weight, cut the shoots out of it with a sharp knife. Usually, the upper cut of the cutting is made straight, this is done to reduce the evaporating surface. It is better to produce it directly above the kidney.
But the lower cut must be made oblique and 0.5-1 cm below the base of the kidney - better on the opposite side of it. The lower leaves from the cuttings must be removed. How many leaves should you leave? Here are some examples: for viburnum, it is enough to leave one whole and half a leaf at the top of the cutting, for irgi - 2-3 leaves, for mountain ash - 1.5 leaves, for currants, gooseberries, bird cherry, honeysuckle and other similar crops - 2 leaves.
The cut cuttings must be immediately placed in a container with water or phytohormone dissolved in it. As for the cuttings of coniferous plants, such as pine, spruce or larch, they must be kept in water for 2-3 hours. This is necessary because resin is released on the cut surface of the cuttings, which prevents the absorption of water from the substrate after planting.
Before planting such cuttings, it is necessary to update the cut. It is also advisable on cuttings of coniferous plants, to facilitate root formation, to make a longitudinal split of the base to a depth of one centimeter. This is done so that a large surface of the cambium is exposed, and its cells form roots more easily.
General view of the greenhouse immediately after watering
A few words should be said about the substrate itself. It consists of a mixture of peat and sand, usually in a ratio of 1: 1, less often - 1: 2; sometimes a mixture of peat with vermiculite or a mixture of peat with perlite in equal proportions is used as a substrate.
Cuttings are planted usually in the morning, especially in large greenhouses. It is impossible to perform any work in them at noon due to the heat. The cuttings are placed vertically in the ground, while the substrate is tightly squeezed around them. Planting depth largely depends on the size of the cuttings, as well as on the plant species. Cuttings of berry and fruit crops are planted to a depth of 1-1.5 centimeters, and ornamental shrubs - 2.5 centimeters. The distance between the cuttings in the rows is left equal to 4-7 centimeters, and between the rows - 5-10 centimeters. In ordinary greenhouses, immediately after planting, the cuttings are watered through a fine sieve and covered with a frame; in large greenhouses, a fogging installation is turned on.
The optimum temperature for rooting cuttings of most tree species is 20 ... 25 ° C. As for hard-to-root crops, it is important for them that the soil temperature is 3-5 degrees higher than the air temperature.
Cuttings planted in small greenhouses are watered, usually 5-6 times a day, in cloudy weather - somewhat less often; in large greenhouses, fogging installations have a time relay that works several times an hour in order to maintain the highest air humidity in the structure.
Soon after planting the cuttings, callus begins to form on them, and then roots. Usually planted in late May - early June, cuttings can be transplanted for growing in mid-September.
I wish you all the best!
candidate of agricultural sciences,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin,
member of the R&D Academy
The overwhelming majority of evergreens, widely used in landscaping, are characterized by a fairly high capacity for vegetative propagation and especially propagation by green cuttings. Evergreen ornamental plants are generally thermophilic and therefore are grown mainly in southern regions and indoors. The advantage of evergreens is that, due to the presence of leaves, they can be cuttings at any time of the year. Green cuttings for this group of plants have always been and remains the main method of propagation. The average rooting rate of cuttings of evergreen plants during grafting is about 80%. The optimal rooting time and rooting time varies depending on the species and variety of plants. For the propagation of evergreen ornamental plants, cuttings 8-12 cm long are cut. The lower leaves of the cuttings must be removed. In crops with large leaves, such as Aucuba japonica, the leaves are trimmed to 1/4 of the leaf area. Removing and pruning leaves on cuttings promotes better rooting. In the southern regions, rooting of cuttings is carried out in the open ground, in more northern regions - in greenhouses or hotbeds.
The beds for rooting of evergreen ornamental plants must be prepared in advance. Fill the pits of the ridges with a two-layer substrate, where the lower layer of the substrate consists of a mixture of sand, chernozem or humus and low-lying peat in equal parts by volume. The top layer should consist of sea sand and have a thickness of 2-3 cm. It would be very good if the ridges are equipped with artificial fog and drainage systems. The humidification mode is regulated by intermittent supply of artificial fog during the daytime in hot and dry weather - after 3 - 5 minutes for 7 - 10 seconds in cloudy weather, the intervals in the supply of fog should be increased to 10 - 15 minutes. At night, the fogging unit is switched on every 1.5 - 2 hours. Under conditions of artificial fog, the rooting rate and development of the root system and the aerial part of the cuttings of evergreens increases significantly. Cuttings from the growth of the current year take root throughout the growing season, with the exception of late autumn propagation by cuttings, when open ground conditions cannot provide a normal rooting process. Despite this, cuttings of most crops taken from the growths of the last year, with early cuttings in April - May, are characterized by higher rooting rates, and by the end of the growing season, plants with a well-developed root system and aerial part are formed from them. In terms of their development, these plants are significantly superior to those that took root later and were taken from the growth of the current year.
Treatment of cuttings with growth stimulants, as a rule, accelerates the process of root formation. The cuttings are treated with a solution of IMC (50 mg / l) for 14-16 hours. This significantly improves the quality of the root system and increases the number of rooted cuttings. The reaction of cuttings of evergreen ornamental plants to the treatment of BCI is not the same - aqueous solutions of BCI are much more effective than alcohol solutions.
For propagation of Lavrovichny officinalis, shoots of the current and last year's growth are used. Shoots of the current season can be cut from late May to the end of the growing season. However, the best starting material for propagation of cherry laurel is the growth of the last year from the middle part of the shoot with three internodes. Leaves on cuttings are left intact or cut off by 14. With a greater reduction in leaf area, the quality of the resulting root system decreases.
Evergreen viburnum can be rooted throughout the year, but the best rooting rate is observed when using the shoots of the growing season at the end of growth in length.
Japanese spindle tree is cut in spring or early summer (May - early June). The optimal time for cuttings of Japanese spindle tree is considered the end of May, which coincides with the end of the growth of shoots in length.
Oleander ordinary propagates by cuttings from the shoots of the current and last year's growth. Early spring terms of cuttings of last year's growths ensure good survival of rooted cuttings.
Cutting Azalea is one of the ways of its propagation. Evergreen azaleas propagate fairly easily by green cuttings and are grown as greenhouse plants. Azalea retains the ability to reproduce by cuttings from February to September. The best time for propagation by cuttings is the end of June to mid-July.
Different types of rhododendrons have a different ability to root green cuttings. The timing of cuttings for rhododendron is a very important factor. In the middle lane, rhododendrons are cut in July - September, and in the southern ones - in late October - early November (in a greenhouse). Rhododendron can be propagated by leaf-bud and stem cuttings. Stem cuttings are cut with 3-5 pairs of leaves from vegetative shoots, mainly from the apical part of the lateral branches of the lower part of the crown. Favorable temperature for rooting cuttings + 15 ... + 22 C and high humidity. Techniques that stimulate rooting include an incision and treatment with growth substances of the basal part of the cuttings. An incision is made from top to bottom, about 4 cm long from the base of the cutting in depth to the cambial layer.
Camellia is propagated by cuttings and grafting. In culture, Japanese camellia is quite common, many varieties of which have a high rooting ability. Camellia is capable of propagation by cuttings from July to September and from December to February. For cuttings, they take partially or completely lignified shoots of the current year. Apical cuttings with 3-4 buds are mainly used and rooted in greenhouses on heated racks at an air temperature of about + 20C, soil - about + 30C.
Cutting is a method of vegetative propagation of plants, developed by people to maximize the preservation of the species and varietal characteristics of mother plants. The method is based on the ability of plants to form a root system from cells of conductive tissue - cambium and procambium.
Cutting is widely used in all branches of plant growing (forestry, floriculture, ornamental and fruit gardening) to preserve existing and develop new varieties of plants, including technical and medicinal.
The most popular grafting methods:
Root cuttings it is used for propagation of raspberries, blackberries, young plants of pear and apple trees. Cuttings of length and thickness are harvested in the fall, and then stored in the basement, sprinkled with peat, sand or sawdust. In the spring, root cuttings are planted in open ground, in a pre-prepared planting pit with nutrient soil, to a depth
Lignified cuttings propagated by grapes, currants, pomegranates, figs, olives, poplar, willow. The material is harvested in the fall. Cuttings are cut in length from annual shoots, knitted in bunches and stored in the basement (or buried in the ground and left under the snow), and in April they are transplanted into open soil. The soil for rooting lignified cuttings should be loose and nutritious. The cuttings themselves are planted at an angle of 45 °, digging in with soil ⅔ of the length. In the future, the cuttings are looked after: they loosen the soil, eliminate pests and diseases, weed weeds and moisten the soil during a drought. After a year, the cuttings are ready for transplantation to a permanent place.
Green cuttings are carried out during the period of active plant growth (usually in May-June), when the shoots grow intensively in length and form leaves. With early rooting, cuttings have time to form a powerful root system and winter well. The main thing in green cuttings is to prevent the cuttings from withering after cutting, so the cut shoots are immediately placed in a bucket of water and stored in the shade. In the next step, green cuttings are rooted in a nutrient substrate. Read more about green cuttings in the article: "Green cuttings of fruit crops and berry bushes."
This section contains articles on the propagation of various fruit and berry and ornamental crops.
We take cuttings for spring grafting from a fruiting plant, from the outer part of the crown, which is well illuminated by the sun. The length of the cutting is about 30-40 cm. The harvesting time is stable subzero temperatures, when the cutting is guaranteed to "fall asleep"! So take your time, there is still time.
Then we sign each stalk (or bunch) and put it in storage (until spring).
Storage methods are different. Trench storage is preferable. A hole 35 cm deep is dug under the size of the cuttings, spruce branches or non-woven material is laid on the bottom, then, like in a puff cake, cuttings, non-woven material, earth, snow. Also, many keep cuttings in the refrigerator, wrapped in newspaper (if there are few cuttings) or in sphagnum.
How to prepare an orchard for winter in the article
Place a piece of black tape on the table. Then wet the moss thoroughly so that it is completely saturated with water. Then put wet sphagnum on a film. Its layer should be 3-4 cm.
On the cuttings, remove all the lower leaves, leaving only the crown, and renew the cut just below the bud. Do it at a 45 degree angle. Then moisten the cut site with water and dip in a root stimulator.
Place the stalk on the moss so that only the top with the leaves protrudes beyond the top edge of the film.
Do the same with the rest of the cinquefoil cuttings and place them on a film with moss at the same distance from each other.
Then roll the film into a roll. If the moss has already dried out, moisten it with a spray bottle.
Tie the cuttings, wrapped in a tube, tightly with threads, cord or wire.
Place the roll in a container and, if necessary, moisten the moss. Subsequent watering is recommended to be carried out directly into the container. The sphagnum will absorb moisture from there and will prevent the cuttings from drying out.