Growing grapes near St. Petersburg


In memory of Vladimir Nikolaevich Silnov

According to the ripening rate for the conditions of St. Petersburg, only

very early, very early and early varieties

... Separately, it is worth noting non-covering grape varieties that are not afraid of strong freezing of the vine and soil.

The cultivation of grapes in the Leningrad Region has its own nuances, since the summer in the Leningrad Region is cool and short, and the sum of active temperatures is very low. Growing in

open ground

... Outside greenhouses, you can grow only over-early, or non-covering grape varieties. But the harvest will ripen only in September.

As a rule, frosts in summer do not occur for only 2 and a half months, while all non-covering varieties require at least 3-4 months of a frost-free period. For this reason, in May, they must be covered with spunbond (or other covering material) from recurrent frosts, so as not to destroy the newly awakened buds.

Super early varieties are a must

shelter for the winter

, also

like roses

: covered with either a black film or roofing material. Non-covering varieties can simply be folded on the ground on spruce branches or boards.

In some years, it is very difficult to get a crop with a high sugar content in the open field, since in the Leningrad region the sum of active temperatures is very small and if the year is not too warm, then the crop will not have time to fully ripen. Therefore, I grow grapes both outdoors and indoors - in greenhouses with a removable roof for the winter and in barrels. Indoors, both very early and early varieties ripen.

The yield varies: in the open field - 3-5 kilograms per bush, in closed ground the yield is several times higher: Early varieties - from 10-15 kilograms to 20, and later, high-yield varieties give up to 50-60 kilograms per bush.

Growing grapes in greenhouses

I am a supporter of growing grapes in our (in the Leningrad region) closed ground with a removable roof, so that in winter the bushes are covered with snow. For growing grapes in greenhouses, I use a four-arm system. At the same time, I plant the bushes after one and a half to two meters and let two shoots in one direction along the trellis and two in the other.

All other shoots are cut off. Wherein

pruning grapes

is carried out in the fall at the rate of 5-6 buds per sleeve, and in the spring we switch to 3 buds on each sleeve and 12 shoots. A tighter planting will result in shading.

Strongly vigorous varieties are best grown either outdoors or in greenhouses. In greenhouses, you can plant varieties that require a large area of ​​nutrition and the amount of active temperatures, these mainly include raisins and all large-fruited varieties. Suitable for growing in greenhouses are such varieties as F1475, Karinka Russian, Reline Pink Sidless, Pink, Russian amber, Super extra, Timur, Very early elegant, Augustine, Flame, White Muscat, Motherland, Russian Early, Success Moscow, Ainset Sidless, Rusbol, Rusball improved (Elf), Lyubava, Kodryanka, Laura, Matryoshka, Neptune, Memory of Dombkovskaya, Mars, Kishmish unique and others.

Strongly growing varieties (they are very productive, but ripen later - in September), you can start up to 16-20 shoots, but the distance between the bushes should be at least 2 meters. The most productive, provided that they are grown in a greenhouse, can be called the following varieties: Ilya Muromets, Rusven, Supago, Lyusil, Pervenets Kuibysheva, Pervenets Saratov, Cosmonaut and many other varieties: Lyubava, Strashensky, Muromets.

Growing grapes outdoors

It often happens that it rains until the end of January and the buds can be covered with ice at the first frost. If the kidney is covered with ice, then it dies (suffocates and vomits). If you put the vine on some kind of litter, for example, on needles, the buds will not dry out, since the buds covered with snow will not freeze up.

Indoors, our grapes do not suffer from rain and dampness. We have a lot of rain in the Leningrad Region. In 2011 and 2012, from mid-July, it was constantly raining and in the open ground the grapes were always wet, because of this, the ripening of the vine lagged behind and the sum of active temperatures was not enough to obtain a high-quality grape harvest.

Growing grapes in barrels

There is another option for growing grapes - in barrels. The subtlety of growing grapes in barrels is that in winter the grapes in barrels are in a buried state, just in an open place on the site.

IN

mid april

the barrel needs to be taken out and brought into the greenhouse and the barrel, standing above the ground, begins to warm up quickly and already at the beginning of May the grapes in the barrels begin to bloom. It turns out a big backlog, at the beginning of June, after the frost stops, I take the barrels outside and put them on the south side of the buildings, where the grapes in barrels continue to grow actively and by the end of June acquire their size. In early July, over-early varieties ripen.

Barrels for the winter in mid-October, buried in the floor in a horizontal position at a distance of a meter from each other, are covered with slate from above. The barrels are sprinkled with earth from the sides. The vine is pruned into 5-6 buds and, when raised above the ground, the vine winters well, without damping out and freezing of the buds.

In barrels, grapes can grow up to 8-10 years old, but from 3 years old you will need to feed the barrels

complex fertilizers

and add soil. After 8-10 years, these barrels can be cut and the bush can be planted in open ground, where it will still grow and bear fruit for 10-12 years.

The most suitable barrels for growing grapes with a capacity of 65 liters (for 50 liters of soil). It is easy to find similar used barrels on sale. Before planting, be sure to make a hole in the bottom of the barrels so that there is no stagnation of water. It is good to make 40-50 holes with a diameter of 10 mm, and pour expanded clay, slag, and broken brick on the bottom of the barrel. The remaining volume of the barrel should be filled with fertile soil: 2-3 year old humus with sand or peat.

There is still 1 subtlety in the second half of summer, starting from July, the barrel must be shaded so that the barrels do not overheat in the sun, otherwise the root system will grow intensively to the detriment of the berry filling and sugar collection. Barrels should be watered once a week.

grade in Memory of Dombkovskaya

In a barrel, you can plant such varieties as: Dimon, Golbena nou, Zilga, Golden Potapenko, Cosmonaut, Platovsky, Crystal, Black superearly, White Delight, Madeleine Selenium, you can also grow wine varieties: Saperavi Smolensky, Minsk 8-17, Russian early and many other not very tall varieties.

You can plant grapes throughout the season: from late May to late September.

open field grade Alpha

Kishmish Zaporozhye

Vladimir Nikolaevich Silnov

P.S. Now for the purchase of grape seedlings, you can contact Nursery Novolisinsky - one of the oldest nurseries in the Leningrad region

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Planting and growing grapes Veles

To ensure high yields of Veles grapes, proper planting and competent care are needed.

Planting grapes

The Veles hybrid is unpretentious and is successfully grown in any way other than sowing seeds. It is best to plant and plant grapes in the spring (in March-May, depending on the climate of the region) - by next winter it will have time to get stronger. The fastest way a new bush will begin to bear fruit is when grafted onto an old stock. To do this, in advance (in the fall), ripe cuttings with 2-3 eyes are harvested, the cut is waxed, wrapped in polyethylene and stored in the refrigerator until spring.

Grafting with green cuttings is carried out in the rootstock split

In the spring, the grape rootstock bush is cut, leaving a small stump with a smooth, smoothed surface. The stalk, previously cut with a wedge and soaked in water, is carefully placed in a split made strictly in the center of the rootstock stump, the grafting site is pulled together with fabric strips and coated with clay.

Vaccination sites should be tied tightly so that the sections can quickly grow together

For those who are afraid or do not want to be vaccinated, you can use the seedling planting method. To do this, prepare healthy cuttings with 4–5 buds and put them in water in mid-February or plant them in moist soil, so that by the time of planting, the cuttings give roots.

Wingograd cuttings grow roots quickly when placed in a jar of water

It is advisable to plant Veles grapes in a nutrient soil that allows moisture to pass through well, best of all in black soil. Areas with stagnant moisture and swampy soils are absolutely not suitable for grapes. The landing site should be well warmed up by the sun.

Since the bushes of Veles are quite large, they require significant space for normal development. The distance between adjacent bushes should be at least 1.5–2 m, and 3-4 m should separate them from trees and buildings.

Drainage must be ensured when planting in wet, dense soils

The pit is prepared 2-3 weeks before planting (depth and diameter 0.8 m). A mixture of soil with humus and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers is poured at the bottom of it, which is covered on top with a layer of clean earth (3-4 cm). Before planting, grape seedlings are dipped in a growth stimulator (for example, Humate at a concentration of 0.5 mg / l).

When planting, you need to be very careful not to break off the fragile side roots (they are characterized by a white color). The root system is carefully covered with soil, compacted, watered with 2-3 buckets of water and mulched with sawdust.

Planting grapes on video

Grape care

The Veles hybrid requires the same care as other grape varieties.

The soil under the vines should be moderately moist all the time, so watering should be done regularly, although not too often. The need for moisture is especially high during the period of blooming of leaves, flowering and formation of clusters, as well as after harvesting.

Watering grapes, you must remember about moderation: waterlogging causes cracking and decay of berries.

To retain moisture in the soil, it is recommended to cover the soil in the trunk circle with a layer of mulch (3-4 cm) of straw, sawdust and or peat. You can also use humus, in this case mulch also serves as a fertilizer.

Formation of grapes - video

The formation of the Veles bush is usually carried out in a fan in 4 arms. The shape is maintained by regular spring and autumn pruning. In spring, it is recommended to do medium pruning, leaving 6-8 eyes on each vine, so that the total load on the bush is 25-32 eyes (maximum 35). Veles is distinguished by a high ability to form stepchildren. In the middle lane, it is recommended to break them out. In the southern regions, stepchildren are left, as bunches are also formed on them. In warm autumn weather, they have enough time to ripen by mid-October, although, of course, the berries of the second harvest are smaller and more acidic than the first.

The fan-shaped formation of a grape bush takes about 3 years.

Supports for grapes are usually made in the form of trellises, although other options are possible (single supports, arches).

Supports for grapes - photo gallery

Double trellises allow you to get more yield, as the number of sleeves on the bush increases Formation of grapes on the arch allows you to create comfortable shady canopies and gazebos Single trellis - the simplest and most common type of support

In autumn, the grape bush is pruned, removing unripe parts of the vine and excess shoots.

In cold regions, grapes necessarily require shelter for the winter, as they cannot stand frosts below -21 ° C. The vines tied in bunches are laid on the ground and tied with straw, dry corn stalks, and polyethylene.

The vines laid on the ground must be carefully tied with insulating material

Grapes respond well to feeding. If organic matter can be applied in the form of a mulch layer, then mineral fertilizers must be given together with irrigation water. Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are especially important, as well as the periodic introduction of trace elements - iron, zinc, boron.

If you give fertilizers to the grapes before flowering, then it will not be beneficial, but will be used to build up the green mass.

Veles has an average resistance to damage by downy mildew and powdery mildew (mildew and powdery mildew). From the author's description it follows that Veles' resistance to these diseases is estimated at 3.5 points. Nevertheless, it is desirable to carry out 2-3 preventive treatments with fungicides (Bordeaux mixture, colloidal sulfur).

Because grapes ripen early, they are usually attacked by wasps. To combat them, you can use traps containing a honey solution with insecticides, or tie each brush with a net or cloth bag. The last method will help to save berries from birds.

If you take the time to tie each bunch in a mesh or fabric bag, you will get the full harvest.

Collection, storage and use of the crop

The harvest of Veles can be started at the beginning of August (sometimes at the end of July). In southern regions with a long warm autumn, you can wait for the second harvest (in October). True, the berries of the second harvest are much smaller and not so tasty.

The brushes hold very firmly on the vines, so they must be cut off, and not broken off.

Elastic flesh and dense skin make Veles Berries resistant to transportation. However, to reduce crop damage, you need to put the brushes in shallow boxes.

You can make tasty and healthy raisins from Veles berries

You can store the harvested grapes in a cool room for about 3 months. It is best to hang the brushes on twines stretched in the room.

Veles berries have an excellent taste and are intended for fresh consumption. Also, you can make wonderful raisins, jam, compote or wine from them.


The source of topics for writing articles was the questions that beginner winegrowers often ask me in personal correspondence and on the forums. I will try to focus on the main thing, we will not boggle our heads with clumps of unnecessary information at the initial stage. Dozens of methods for achieving the same goal will not be described here, dozens of formations that are inapplicable in real practice, etc., will not be described, on the contrary, only simple, repeatedly proven methods that give a reliable result. Over time, the site will acquire background information on various topics related to viticulture, and existing sections will be replenished. Suggestions regarding topics for new articles are accepted. Read more about the project here.

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Working with grapes in the summer

With the onset of summer, grape shoots begin to grow actively. Therefore, in the warm season, great attention should be paid to green operations (pinching, pinching, chasing). If the grapes are allowed to develop freely, it will devote all its strength to the formation of new shoots, and this will affect the quality and quantity of the harvest. In addition, thickened bushes will not be properly illuminated and ventilated, which can lead to the development of various diseases.

During green operations, treat the instrument with disinfectants. Do not leave cut leaves and shoots on the ground, as they can be a source of grape disease.

The first summer treatment of the vineyard is carried out 10-15 days after flowering (setting and the beginning of the growth of berries). For preventive purposes, biological products can be used: Sporobacterin, Baktofit. Systemic drugs will be effective against powdery mildew, black spot, black rot: Skor, Medea. If there are signs of mildew infection, treat with a pesticide containing copper oxychloride: Abiga-Peak, Cuprolux, HOM.

Remove the leaves shading the bunches during the ripening period. Examine the plants carefully so as not to miss the first signs of disease and the appearance of pests.

On the eve of berry ripening, it is allowed to use biofungicides (Sporobacterin, Baktofit), potassium permanganate solution (5 g per 10 l of water), ash infusion (200 g per 10 l). To stimulate the protective functions of plants, you can use the biological product Immunocytophyte.

Against such pests as ticks, thrips, leafhoppers, leaf rollers, during this period, you can use bacterial insecticides and insectoacaricides that do not have phytotoxicity (Fitoverm, Lepidocid, Bitoxibacillin), as well as folk remedies: infusion of tobacco leaves, infusion of garlic, ash.

During the fruiting period, do not forget about feeding. In the second half of the growing season, potash-phosphorus fertilizers, Kristalon Red or Orange, and ash infusion are used. Nitrogen fertilizers should be excluded, as this can lead to intensive regrowth of the vine, which will not ripen by winter and may die. If the vineyard needs watering, the top dressing is combined with it. If not, then foliar feeding is carried out.


Garden and vegetable garden - total control!

A summer cottage, a garden and a vegetable garden - from these very words a fresh wind blows with aromas of flowers and fruits! It doesn't matter who you are - an adherent of homemade products grown with your own hands, or an aristocrat spoiled by civilization, There is a place under the sun for everyone on Sotka!

Sooner or later, even the most comfortable apartments are not able to keep us in their close embrace, and we break out into nature. Someone confines themselves to barbecue in the meadow, while others find incomparable pleasure in contemplating the hatching seeds of tomatoes and tender sprouts of pansies, in blossoming buds and buzzing bees. How can you limit yourself in such happiness ?!


Watch the video: EASY INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO PRUNE GRAPE VINES - simplified


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